Livestock production is one of the main human activities. As incomes grow in middle and even low income countries, demand for livestock products is booming, with important benefits and risks for food security, human welfare, and global security. Positively, livestock are sources of income, savings, food, fuel, and transport for poor people, especially in drier areas. However, feed for livestock is an important contributor to the overall tightening of crop availability and increasing food price volatility. The intensification of livestock production in low and middle income countries also comes with increased biosecurity risks, both from the increasing risk from currently prevalent pathogens and from increasing risks of emerging diseases. Livestock raising is also intimately linked to rural conflicts in dry areas, such as the Horn of Africa and the Sahel. For managing these security risks we propose a number of short- and medium-term actions.