Global warming has become one of the major challenges in maintaining global food security. This paper reviews the impacts of climate change on fourteen strategic crops for eight sub-Saharan Africa countries. Climate change is projected to increase median temperature by 1.4–5.5°C and median precipitation by −2% to 20% by the end of the 21st century. However, large levels of uncertainty exist with temporal and spatial variability of rainfall events. The impact of climate change on crop yields in the region is largely negative. Among the grain crops, wheat is reported as the most vulnerable crop, for which up to 72% of the current yield is projected to decline. For other grain crops, such as maize, rice and soybean, up to 45% yield reductions are expected by the end of this century. Two grain crops, millet and sorghum, are more resilient to climate change for which projected impacts on crop yields are <20%. Root crops, such as sweet potato, potato and cassava are projected to be less affected than the grain crops with changes to crop yields ranging from about −15% to 10%. For the two major export crops, tea and coffee, up to 40% yield loss is expected due to the reduction in suitable areas caused by temperature increase. Similar loss of suitable areas is also expected for banana and sugarcane production, however, this reduction is due to rainfall variability in lowland areas. Other crops such as cotton and sugarcane are projected to be more susceptible to precipitation variation that will vary significantly in the region. In order to mitigate the long-term impacts of climate change on agricultural sectors, the development of small-scale irrigation systems and water harvesting structures seems promising, however, affordability of such measures remains a key issue.