This book has explored the experiences of forest tenure reforms in 11 countries, across dozens of regions and communities, with the goal of understanding their origins, processes of implementation and outcomes for local life and forest conditions. As we have seen, these reforms range from those that are somewhat older to those that are incipient and vary from new revenue rights and short-term concessions to full-fl edged statutory ownership and land titles. The granting of rights has sometimes transferred limited new rights or taken away others and has often been laden with responsibilities to conserve forests, but it has also offered new livelihood opportunities and/or improved forest condition in many cases.